PQN was a multi-disciplinary study, exploring the needs of pedestrians and developing models in context, based on evidence, and with measurable outputs.
The project started with an inventory of available statistics, national and international research and development publications with regard to pedestrians and documented policy statements of stakeholders on the various political and institutional levels. The PQN project was launched in 2006 and completed in November 2010.
The main objective of the Action is to provide an essential contribution to systems knowledge of pedestrians' quality needs and the requirements derived from those needs, thus stimulating structural and functional interventions, policy making and regulation to support the walking conditions across the EU and other involved countries.
The research aims were:
1. Improve understanding
To improve the understanding of pedestrians' quality needs with regard to public space, the transport system and the social, legal and political context and their interrelations;
2. Advance effectiveness and efficiency
Describe the State-of-the-Art, identify an agreed set of requirements and develop a new paradigm (a coherent system of theories and models regarding adequate pedestrian facilities and qualities) that can be used by stakeholders for analysing and improving 'reality';
3. Provide Knowledge base
Provide an accessible knowledge base and easy to use auditing scheme that enables authorities and possibly interest groups to tackle, prevent and prioritise current and future problems regarding pedestrian mobility and presence in public space;
4. Stimulate innovation
To stimulate partners to innovate tools and disseminate knowledge that helps shedding new light on the issue and stimulates a new lan in providing for safe mobility of the pedestrian;
5. Provide recommendations for further research
Indicate gaps in knowledge and provide recommendations for further research.
PQN Summary Report
The PQN summary, published at the beginning of the project, provides an introduction to the project in a number of languages. The summary can be accessed in the following languages;
The PQN Model
The scientific programme for the Pedestrian Quality Needs (PQN) Action is based on a comprehensive conceptual model, describing the general factors that influence the actual decisions by (potential) pedestrians, be it for a door-to-door trip, a trip to other modes or just staying in public space.
This deductive 'back to basics' approach implies a study of the needs, tasks, competences, requirements of pedestrians, contexts and their performances in the various situations of the participating countries.
Past research resulted in substantial knowledge on the requirements for promoting walking in city centres. This study will expand that knowledge to everyday walking, in particular in the outskirts of towns and villages, where in fact most of the walking is done.
The model and its background are described in the PQN Final Report - Part A Introduction and Conceptual Framework available under Final Report.
Apart from the final report the PQN project yielded some useful source documents, such as the Country Reports that the delegates of participating countries compiled, a detailed COST Short Term Scientific Mission report on pedestrian conditions in the physical environment, a sources study to provide documentation for the substantiation of the PQN policy process and the results of a survey on data availability in European countries.
COST 358 Pedestrians' Quality Needs MoU |COST Office / Rob Methorst
This document contains the original Memorandum of Understanding and its Technical Annex. This MoU marked the start of the COST 358 PQN project and includes the original project description. The documents shows what elements were included for promoting countries to join the Action.
Country Reports - 01. Overview | David Zaidel and Shalom Hakkert
There are 18 Country Reports available, based on a basic questionnaire. Although the reports deal with the same items, the level of detail and perspectives taken differ from country to country. There are Country Reports available for 18 countries; Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Israel, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Serbia, Spain, Switzerland and the United Kingdom.
Country Reports - 02. Pedestrian research evolution | David Zaidel & Shalom Hakkert
Overview of the nature of pedestrian research in PQN countries: Policies, issues, research, concerns, interests
Country Reports - 03. Summary table of publications | Shalom Hakkert & David Zaidel
Summary table of publications: issues mentioned in the Country Reports publications lists.
History of pedestrian policies and research | Nicole Muhlrad
As background information for the PQN researchers group Nicole Muhlrad wrote an article about the history of pedestrian safety policies in Western Europe. In this context, she reviews the main steps taken since the 60s to improve pedestrian mobility and safety in urban areas. It will be seen that the measures taken have primarily addressed speed reduction and repossession of space for pedestrians, which has meant opposing the social and economic pressures to give full priority to individual transport by car, freedom of driving, and allocation of greater and greater road space to motorised traffic.
The report summarises scientific research concerning individual and perceived physical and social environmental factors related to walking.
Measuring Walking - Towards internationally standardised monitoring methods of walking and public space | Daniel Sauter & Martin Wedderburn
For many years walking had not been seriously considered as means of transport and, consequently, not been measured. In recent years we have seen, however, new methods and tools to assess walking have been developed all over the world. Data is gathered, surveys, counts and audits are performed. In parallel, new technologies and equipment is being placed on the market. This is a big step forward. However, debates show one common problem: the incompatibility of data and methods.
Sources study: Overview of insights in literature | Evelien Sombekke and Herman Katteler
For the support of the documentation and substantiation of the policy development steps, as identified in the PQN conceptual framework, the ITS-Radboud University carried out a sources study. The external research was made possible by additional funding by Rijkswaterstaat, the national road authority in the Netherlands. Evelien Sombekke and Herman Katteler performed the study.
STSM Report Dell'Asin | Giulia Dell'Asin
In 2008 Giulia Dell'Asin carried out a so called Short Scientific Mission in Rotterdam at AVV Transport Research Centre and delivered a voluminous report based on the available Country Reports, international databases and an internet search. The PQN national delegates were involved to validate the reported insights. Main items in the report are: Country Comparison, 20 Pedestrian-friendly cities in the PQN countries, Additional literature: "Pedestrian children".
Survey - data availability in European countries | Daniel Sauter
In the early stages of the PQN-project a survey was carried out with the objective to explore what type of data were available in each country and how they were collected. Participants were asked to provide information on all levels - national, regional, municipal and project-related - as far as this was possible. 10 countries took part in the survey and provided results: Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Spain and Switzerland. The results are given as an overview in a separate file which acts as an annex to report B4 on Measuring Walking. The survey was coordinated by Daniel Sauter with the help of Melanie Kunz and the financial support by the Swiss Federal Roads Office and Swiss State Secretariat for Education and Research.
PQN Final Report
The Pedestrians' Quality Needs Project (PQN) established what people need to choose to walk. The summary provides an understanding of those needs and how they can be met and supported by policy.
The PQN Final Report consists of 7 parts available below as follows;
Part A. Introduction and conceptual framework (Rob Methorst)
Part B.1. Documentation - Functional needs (Hector Monterde et al)
Part B.2. Documentation - Perceived need (Ralf Risser et al)
Part B.3. Documentation - The future of walking (Daniel Sauter et al)
Part B.4. Documentation - Measuring walking (Daniel Sauter et al)
Part B.5. Documentation - Policy process (Rob Methorst)
Part C. Executive Summary (Rob Methorst, Hector Monterde-i-Bort, Ralf Risser, Daniel Sauter, Miles Tight and Jim Walker)
As well as the final report the PQN project yielded some other useful source documents, such as the Country Reports, Short Term Scientific Mission report and a sources study. These are available under 'Background Documents.'
If you use the PQN Final Report (as a whole), please refer to it in your references list as follows:
Methorst R., Monterde i Bort H., Risser R., Sauter D., Tight M. & Walker J. (Eds.) (2010) Pedestrians' Quality Needs. Final Report of the COST project 358, Cheltenham: Walk21.
If you want to refer to an individual articles of the report, please refer to it in your references list as (use names and title as headed in the article concerned):
Name X., Name Y. & Name Z. (2010) Title. In: Methorst R., Monterde i Bort H., Risser R. Sauter D., Tight M. & Walker J. (Eds.) (2010) Pedestrians' Quality Needs. Final Report of the COST project 358, Cheltenham: Walk21.
Senior Management Group
Working Group Leaders
WG 2 Perceived Needs - Ralf Risser :
WG 4 Coherence and Integration - Rob Methorst :
Dr. Rachel Thomas : rachel .
Professor Alfred Shalom Hakkert :
Dr. Maartje de Goede :
Drs. Tineke Hof :
Mr. Rob Methorst :
Mrs. Chantal Groenewoud :
Professor Anne-Katrine Geelmuyden :